New England/Vermont-style IPA Is/Not a Thing


“New England/Vermont-style of IPA is not a style. American-Style IPA is a style and it’s recognized worldwide.” 
– Tyler Brown, owner/founder of Barley Browns Brewing

As IPAs continue to lead the “craft” beer industry in sales and growth, the beer world is buzzing about a new wave of IPAs that are cloudier and juicier and sometimes use real fruit. America’s favorite craft beer style is branching out of the west coast examples that have made them famous. Brewers and beer geeks have long searched for twists on the standard IPA by adding rye, wheat, spices, or dark roasted malts. The most major influences of recent note is not from the hop heavy west coast, but the lands down under of New Zealand and Australia and the cold and green state of Vermont on the east coast.

Our obsession with fruity and citrusy hop flavors have not subsided, but now we have the extra tropical and juicy varieties from New Zealand and Australia, like Galaxy and Nelson Sauvin, and new American-bred ones like Azacca, Equinox, and El Dorado. In Vermont and greater New England, a new type of IPA has arisen known for juicy citrusy hop aroma and flavor, lower bitterness, and, most importantly, a hazy color and body. Not content to be left behind, west coast pioneers like Ballast Point Brewing & Spirits have taken to actually adding real fruit and citrus to the beers, as that brewery did with the influential Grapefruit Sculpin IPA and, more recently, Pineapple Sculpin.

Though there are trends toward fruit/citrus, tropical hops, cloudy and low bitterness, and even sour/tart IPAs, they are all aiming for the same thing: capturing even more juicy fruit flavors. The New England or Vermont-style IPAs have recently made a big splash in Colorado and now Oregon, with some hailing them as the future of American IPA. In exploring this trend I talked to some of Oregon’s masters of the IPA, as well as Vermont’s brewing legends said to have created the style. What I found was a style more dreamed up by the press and beer geeks than actual breweries.

If cloudy, fruity IPAs with moderate bitterness are a new style, then Amnesia Brewing was making the style 10 years ago at its brewpub on N. Mississippi in Portland (now Stormbreaker Brewing). Most brewers have made it their mission to clarify their beer if not filter it; it’s a point of pride for many that includes expenses like conditioning the beer longer or investing in spendy equipment like centrifuges. For Oregon brewers like Breakside, Fat Head’s, and Barley Browns, the clarity of an IPA is a high level of importance. I find the haze visually unappealing at best, and quite amateurish in many instances,” said Breakside brewmaster Ben Edmunds. In Vermont, John Kimmich, the founder and brewer of The Alchemist who makes arguably the prototypical Vermont-style IPA Heady Topper, says, “I love a nice hazy hoppy beer, and do not have any problems drinking them. I find it humorous and frustrating that so many people get hung up on this.”


It’s All About the Yeast (or NOT)

The cause of the New England/Vermont IPA haze is even up for debate. On homebrew forums people are suggesting to go as far as adding adjuncts like corn and flour to keep the beer opaque. Perhaps the most famous Vermont IPA, Heady Topper from The Alchemist, even clears up over time. The Heady Topper yeast itself has become the stuff of lore, with some believing it the key to the Vermont-style of IPA. Its exact origins are secret, but John Kimmich explains how it became The Alchemist’s house strain. “As I understand it, Greg Noonan obtained the yeast on a trip to England back in the early 90s. When Jen and I opened The Alchemist Pub and Brewery in 2003, I was lucky enough to have Greg grant me permission to use the yeast. The only condition being that I would never share the original culture with anyone.” Still, John does not credit the yeast for his beers slight haziness nor is it intentional. “Our beers are hazy due to the English barley that I use, and the techniques of hopping that I have developed over the last couple of decades. Like any beer, it will eventually drop completely bright in the can.” Even Shaun Hill, brewmaster and owner of what some call the best brewery in the world–Hill Farmstead Brewing–and who calls John Kimmich his mentor, says, “I’ve used several yeasts over the years, but there was never any intention to make the beer cloudy.”

Great Notion Brewing's New England inspired ales.

Great Notion Brewing’s New England inspired ales.

This has not stopped other breweries from attempting their own variations of the beers that The Alchemist and Hill Farmstead made famous by culturing up the yeast from cans of Heady Topper. The craze for Vermont IPAs and that famous Heady yeast have extended to Portland’s recently opened Great Notion Brewing’s, whose buzz-worthy IPAs have ignited other writers like Willamette Week’s Martin Cizmar to proclaim:

“I think they’re poised to become the official IPA of New Portland”

Great Notion uses the aforementioned yeast, and the brewery’s beers seem even cloudier than those from Vermont. Beer geeks, homebrewers, and writers have become obsessed with this one feature of the beers that seems to be an unintentional side-effect of the yeast and dry-hopping that has become accentuated by off-shoots inspired by the originals.

John Kimmich explains why those influenced by the Vermont beers are even more muddled and milky:

“I find it interesting that so many brewers and yeast companies are now using our yeast. I have tried several beers from different sources, and find that, for the most part, they miss the mark. I can attribute this to one thing–they are all getting their yeast from our cans of beer one way or another. Some have cropped the tiny amount of yeast on the bottom of the can, or they bought it from one of the tiny online yeast banks. The problem with this is that they are all using a culture taken from the weakest yeast cells in the fermentation process. Although we do not filter our beer, we do a pretty good job of keeping yeast out of the can. Therefore, the only yeast left in the can are the weaklings that were never able to fully drop out of suspension. That is their starting point, so they are at a huge disadvantage from the start. I often hear about the fact that these beers being brewed around the country are very turbid and almost milky in appearance; again, not surprising.”

Great Notion head brewer James Dugan says his brewery’s IPAs are actually relatively clear before they are dry-hopped with boatloads of citrusy hops. While the haziness of these beers is a factor in a more pillowy soft body, it seems like it’s been overplayed even to those who pioneered it. As Shaun Hill says, “I never paid much mind to the hazy/unfiltered nature of these beers – it was all about flavor, aroma, and mouthfeel. However, it seems that this caught the attention of others…”

West Coast vs East Coast

In the end, the question of whether Vermont or New England-style IPA truly warrants its own official style is how unique and how influential it is. Its influence is quickly growing and inspiring many imitators, but is it a flash in the pan trend or a lasting category? The pros are split. Breakside’s Ben Edmunds says, “It’s clearly a ‘thing,'” but also goes on to say, “I don’t know that this is a ‘new category’ so much as basically a West Coast IPA that is using predominantly new hop varietals, specifically some of the following: Citra, Mosaic, El Dorado, Equinox, Galaxy, and other ‘new’ releases. In my mind, these beers are really just West Coast IPAs with some newfangled hops.”

The Alchemist’s John Kimmich (who debatebly created the style) does not even believe it is a style, saying, “I’m not reinventing the wheel here,” and “I find the very idea to be so arrogant and self-serving that I would never prop myself up as some sort of style-defining brewer. I love IPA of all walks of life, as long as they don’t suck. I definitely read a lot of the things that are said about Vermont beers, and I chuckle when people get so worked up as to what they feel defines a great beer. Usually the most vocal are the ones that actually know the least, although they certainly love to read their own work, and act like they know what they speak of.”

Block 15 Brewing's Intergalactic Hop Shop

Block 15 Brewing’s Intergalactic Hop Shop

Backing up John Kimmich’s theory, beloved Oregon brewery Block 15 Brewing has been making cloudy IPAs for the last 7 years. But owner Nick Arzner was caught off guard when one of his latest creations, Intergalactic Hop Shop, was proclaimed his tribute to NE IPAs by beer geeks. Caught unaware of the juicy NE hop craze, Nick admitted, “Honestly, I was unaware of the ‘juice’ craze until after we released Intergalactic Hop Shop and folks were commenting on it being a NE style. I didn’t know what the hell they were talking about and did a little research.” Nick has been brewing beers since the beginning that could be described as New England-style, unbeknownst to him. Though he has no intention of following any trends, he notes, “we will continue to brew back hopped, unfiltered, hoppy beers with English yeast, just as we have years as a part of our hop forward offerings. I will continue to use 1098 one of our yeast strains and put less emphasis on clearing out the haze and cloudy look of some offerings.”

Is making a beer more fruit forward and juicy with a slightly lower bitterness than most an entirely new style? NO. But it is a trend, a trend that has been in the making across the country not just in New England. That makes the only truly unique aspect of the aspiring trend its hazy and pillowy body and appearance, but even that seems unintentional. Not one brewer we spoke to did it intentionally.

I even asked Brewmaster Mitch Steele of Stone Brewing Co.–who literally wrote the book on IPA–if he thought New England/Vermont IPAs were a thing. He said, I just spent 2 weeks on the East Coast. Tasted a few of these. And yes, it’s a thing. I expect it will be considered a style by most craft beer people soon. I brewed at 3 different breweries in Philadelphia and we discussed this cloudy IPA thing at each one.” A nice endorsement, but it’s surprising considering Stone Brewing Co. fought against the Cascadian Dark Ale definition tooth and nail because of its jingoism. 

As Tyler Brown, founder of Oregon’s Barley Browns Brewing points out, “As brewing trends emerge, the Brewers Association tends to notice and recognizes them with a name and a description. They do not recognize regional (US) beers.” After all, does anyone remember the Texas Brown Ale or the Cascadian Dark Ale? No, of course you don’t.

But is recognition by the Brewers Association even relevant anymore? Their definitions of craft vs crafty breweries and styles and sub-styles is murkier than a Vermont IPA.

Samurai Artist
Samurai Artist

Founder of The New School and most frequent contributor Ezra Johnson-Greenough has worked in the craft beer industry for almost 10 years, doing everything from illustrating beer labels to bartending at renowned beer bars and breweries like Belmont Station, Apex, Laurelwood and Upright Brewing. He has also had a hand in creating events like the Portland Fruit Beer Festival, Portland Beer Week, and the Brewing up Cocktails series. He is available for freelance consultation in marketing, events, graphic design and branding. Contact:


  • John
    Thu Mar 31, 2016 1:47 PM

    Oh no! This article is totally gonna have a Streisand effect! Ugh, now it’s officially a thing. And MC will get all the credit!

    • Jordan
      Thu Mar 31, 2016 3:51 PM

      I very much remember and love Cascadian Darks.

      • Seth Lohr
        Seth Lohr
        Thu Mar 31, 2016 4:00 PM

        The Double Pacific Ale, collab Devils Backbone Brewing Co did with Thunder Road…an Australian Brewery is yummy for me. 50ibus and 8.4% all the fruity hoppy tropical you need goes down like a 5.2% APA favorite pack this year DB collaboration pack

        • Jason Notte
          Jason Notte
          Thu Mar 31, 2016 7:01 PM

          Wait, so hazy and tropical IPA is “New Portland,” but it’s the natural progression of English IPA enjoyed in New England. Which is old. Also, give that Alan Pugsley was a great proponent of the milder, balanced English IPA, Portland, Maine, would be the nexus of this more mild style, which was brought into the mainstream by Portland, Maine’s own Maine Beer. Also, since Portland, Maine, is the oldest Portland there is, wouldn’t this hazy, tropical IPA be “The Official New IPA Of Old, Old Portland?”

          • Aaron
            Fri Apr 1, 2016 8:45 PM

            I’m not so sure there are direct links to either pugsley or portland maine, it’s more of northern vt origin. Alchemist certainly predates MBC, not to say that MBC doesn’t make NE IPA, but the Pugsley connection is tenuous at best. He is the ringworm(wood) guy, and when you think of his IPA’s you have to think Shipyard, Seadog, woodstock, gearys, none of which are notable for NEstyle IPA’s as described in the article.

          • Dr Will
            Dr Will
            Thu Mar 31, 2016 10:19 PM

            I’m not sure why everyone is getting agitated about it NOT being a style either.

            I’m not an expert, but “west coast IPA” uses dank/pine/citrusy hops, has high bitterness, water high in sulfate, avoids adjuncts, uses 1098 or a similarly clean high-attenuating american yeast, and is very clear.

            The “vermont style” uses exclusively fruity and citrusy hops, is low in bitterness, has water lower in sulfate and higher in chloride, may use oats and wheat as adjuncts, uses estery lower-attenuating british yeast strains, and is cloudy to the point of opaque.

            Whatever someone wants to say is an official “style” is for someone else to decide. Maybe it’s just a “sub-style” that was accidentally created. But let’s not pretend they are the same.

            • Kevin
              Fri Apr 1, 2016 1:39 PM

              The beer world seems to have a habit of getting really hung up and worried about whether new trends are “legitimate” and whether things are an official “style.” I think it’s clear that people have found the term useful in differentiating between beers, or there wouldn’t be an article about it. This is like asking if a new colloquialism should be considered a real word. If it’s being used enough for you to ask that question, it’s already a word, and your discussion is meaningless.

              • nobule
                Mon May 23, 2016 10:00 PM

                This article is such a trolling piece of clickbait garbage. Imagine the outcry from west coasters if they published an article titled “The West Coast IPA is not a thing” and then it was all about how somebody on the East Coast made a super fruity clean IPA back in the early 1990s by accident. What trash.

                Sure labels are sorta silly and all, but dissing one region’s identity why accepting anothers is hypocritical crap.

                Why can’t west coasters respect the differences rather than trying to argue them out of existence? Probably because their hop-burned tastebuds can’t recognize the subtle awesomeness of the VT IPA. A flavorful yeasty reckoning is coming whether you awknowlege it’s origins in NE or not.

                • Danny
                  Thu Nov 16, 2017 3:58 PM

                  This is like when people try to say vernacular words aren’t legitimate because they aren’t in the dictionary. It’s an organic grown and eventually it’ll work its way fully into the beer lexicon.

                  The only languages without slang are dead languages – consider it an analogy for the liveliness of beer styles.

                  • FartHammer
                    Wed Nov 14, 2018 9:50 AM

                    Two and half years later and New England IPA is an official BJCP category and Barley Browns is making Occam’s Hazer, Hazer Beam, Over Hopulation, Feast from the Yeast, etc. Breakside has an “exotic, hazy IPA” on their homepage. Try to be a little less sanctimonious next time fellas.